Neptunium 93 Np is usually considered an artificial elementalthough trace quantities are found in nature, so a standard atomic weight cannot be given. Like all trace or artificial elements, it has no stable isotopes. The first isotope to be synthesized and identified was Np inproduced by bombarding U with neutrons to produce U, which then underwent beta decay to Np. Trace quantities are found in nature from neutron capture reactions by uranium atoms, a fact not discovered until Twenty-five neptunium radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being Np with a half-life of 2.
All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 4. The isotopes of neptunium range from Np to Npthough the intermediate isotope Np has not yet been observed. The primary decay mode before the most stable isotope, Npis electron capture with a good deal of alpha emissionand the primary mode after is beta emission.W istanbul email address
The primary decay products before Np are isotopes of uranium and protactiniumand the primary products after are isotopes of plutonium. Uranium and neptunium are regarded as the leading hazardous radioisotopes in the first hour-to-week period following nuclear fallout from a nuclear detonation, with Np dominating "the spectrum for several days. Neptunium has neutrons and a half-life ofyears.
It can decay by the following methods:. This particular isotope of neptunium has a mass of It is a fissile material with a critical mass of 6. Nevertheless, Np has been considered for use in mass spectrometry and as a radioactive tracerbecause it decays predominantly by beta emission with a long half-life. The most favorable reactions to accumulate Np were shown to be proton and deuteron irradiation of uranium Over the long term, Np also forms in spent nuclear fuel as the decay product of americium When exposed to neutron bombardment Np can capture a neutron, undergo beta decay, and become Puthis product being useful as an thermal energy source in a radio-isotope thermoelectric generator for the production of electricity and heat in deep space probes such as the New Horizons and Voyager probes and, of recent note, the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover.
These applications are economically practical where photovoltaic power sources are weak or inconsistent due to probes being too far from the sun or rovers facing climate events that may obstruct sunlight for long periods. Space probes and rovers also make use of the heat output of the generator to keep their instruments and internals warm. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Actinides and fission products by half-life v t e. Journal of the American Chemical Society. Tables, graphs, and references" PDF.
Chinese Physics C. Physics Letters B.Neptunium, element 93 on the periodic table of elements, was the first transuranium element to be produced synthetically and the first actinide series transuranium element to be discovered.
Its discovery came after several false findings of the element, including Enrico Fermi's attempt to bombard uranium with neutrons.J3455 vs n4100
That experiment resulted in the discovery of fission, or splitting atoms. Neptunium is sandwiched on the periodic table between uranium and plutonium, which are also radioactive. All three of these elements, named after planets, have between 92 and 94 protons in their nuclei, large enough to undergo a nuclear fission reaction, or "atom splitting. Neptunium, however, was discovered significantly later in history than either of its periodic table neighbors, and is not widely used.
Neptunium remains an important element to study because it is produced by nuclear reactions of uranium and plutonium and can last as harmful radioactive waste for millions of years, according to a report by the Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory.
Understanding neptunium's chemistry is essential to ensure safe long-term nuclear waste storage. He hypothesized that elements heavier than uranium element 92 could be created by bombarding uranium with neutrons.
Theoretically, this would add one neutral mass unit to the uranium atoms, which would then undergo beta decay, or loss of a negative charge that turns a neutron into a proton, resulting in an element with 93 total protons. Fermi's experiment did not end up producing an element; instead of the neutrons fusing with the uranium atoms, they split the uranium atoms into many fragment radioisotopes.
Fermi was criticized for his false claim, and did not know at the time that he had actually performed the first atom splitting, or fissionexperiment. Just four years later inRomanian physicist Horia Hulubei and French chemist Yvette Cauchois made a similar false report of discovering element They claimed that they found the element in a naturally occurring mineral sample. At the time, scientists rejected this, believing no elements with more protons than uranium transuranium elements were present in nature.
Element 93 was accepted as an existing element in at the University of California, Berkeley. Professor Edwin McMillan and graduate student Philip Abelson used a technique similar to Fermi, but with one important difference: they used slow-moving neutrons. McMillan used a machine called a cyclotron to slow the neutrons and then directed them at a uranium target.
This time, the neutrons actually worked to create element 93 by fusing with the uranium atoms instead of breaking them apart. Abelson analyzed the resulting sample, and noted unusual beta radiation that showed a new isotope later named Np was present.
McMillan and Abelson decided to call the element neptunium because Neptune is the next planet beyond Uranus in the solar system. The discovery was the first transuranium element to be synthesized in a lab and earned McMillan a Nobel Prize in Atomic Number: Symbol: Np. Atomic Weight: Discovery: E. McMillan and P. Abelson United States. Electron Configuration: [Rn] 5f 4 6d 1 7s 2.What does the purple heart emoji mean
Word Origin: Named after the planet Neptune. Isotopes: 20 isotopes of Neptunium are known. The most stable of these is neptunium, with a half-life of 2. Neptunium is a silvery, ductile, radioactive metal. Three allotropes are known. At room temperature it exists primarily in an orthorhombic crystalline state. Uses: Neptunium is used in neutron-detection equipment.
Sources McMillan and Abelson produced neptunium half-life 2. Neptunium is also found in very small quantities associated with uranium ores. Melting Point K : Boiling Point K : Appearance: silvery metal. Atomic Radius pm : Pauling Negativity Number: 1. Oxidation States: 6, 5, 4, 3.
Lattice Structure: Orthorhombic. Return to the Periodic Table. Periodic Table of the Elements. Chemistry Encyclopedia. Share Flipboard Email. Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph. Chemistry Expert.
Helmenstine holds a Ph. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. Facebook Facebook Twitter Twitter. Updated October 02, Cite this Article Format.Neptunium is a chemical element with the symbol Np and atomic number A radioactive actinide metal, neptunium is the first transuranic element. Its position in the periodic table just after uraniumnamed after the planet Uranusled to it being named after Neptunethe next planet beyond Uranus. A neptunium atom has 93 protons and 93 electrons, of which seven are valence electrons.
Neptunium metal is silvery and tarnishes when exposed to air. It is radioactivepoisonouspyrophoricand capable of accumulating in boneswhich makes the handling of neptunium dangerous. Although many false claims of its discovery were made over the years, the element was first synthesized by Edwin McMillan and Philip H. Abelson at the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory in The vast majority is generated as a by-product in conventional nuclear power reactors.
While neptunium itself has no commercial uses at present, it is used as a precursor for the formation of plutoniumused in radioisotope thermal generators to provide electricity for spacecraft. Neptunium has also been used in detectors of high-energy neutrons. The longest-lived isotope of neptunium, neptunium, is a by-product of nuclear reactors and plutonium production.Saint Yard Arbat
It, and the isotope neptunium, are also found in trace amounts in uranium ores due to neutron capture reactions and beta decay. Neptunium is a hardsilvery, ductileradioactive actinide metal. In the periodic tableit is located to the right of the actinide uraniumto the left of the actinide plutonium and below the lanthanide promethium. When exposed to air at normal temperatures, it forms a thin oxide layer. This reaction proceeds more rapidly as the temperature increases.
Neptunium is found in at least three allotropes. Some allotropes of the other actinides also exhibit similar behaviour, though to a lesser degree. Due to the presence of valence 5f electrons, neptunium and its alloys exhibit very interesting magnetic behavior, like many other actinides.
These can range from the itinerant band-like character characteristic of the transition metals to the local moment behavior typical of scandiumyttriumand the lanthanides. This stems from 5f-orbital hybridization with the orbitals of the metal ligandsand the fact that the 5f orbital is relativistically destabilized and extends outwards.
One neptunium-based superconductor alloy has been discovered with formula Np Pd 5 Al 2. This occurrence in neptunium compounds is somewhat surprising because they often exhibit strong magnetism, which usually destroys superconductivity.
It is the heaviest actinide that can lose all its valence electrons in a stable compound. Neptunium metal is very reactive. Ions of neptunium are prone to hydrolysis and formation of coordination compounds.
A neptunium atom has 93 electrons, arranged in the configuration [ Rn ]5f 4 6d 1 7s 2. This differs from the configuration expected by the Aufbau principle in that one electron is in the 6d subshell instead of being as expected in the 5f subshell.
This is because of the similarity of the electron energies of the 5f, 6d, and 7s subshells. In forming compounds and ions, all the valence electrons may be lost, leaving behind an inert core of inner electrons with the electron configuration of the noble gas radon;  more commonly, only some of the valence electrons will be lost.
The first ionization potential of neptunium was measured to be at most 6.Neptunium is a chemical element with atomic number 93 which means there are 93 protons and 93 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Neptunium is Np. Neptunium metal is silvery and tarnishes when exposed to air. Neptunium is the first transuranic element.
Facts About Neptunium
Note that, each element may contain more isotopes, therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occuring isotopes and their abundance. One atomic mass unit is equal to 1. For 12 C the atomic mass is exactly 12u, since the atomic mass unit is defined from it.
For other isotopes, the isotopic mass usually differs and is usually within 0. For example, 63 Cu 29 protons and 34 neutrons has a mass number of 63 and an isotopic mass in its nuclear ground state is There are two reasons for the difference between mass number and isotopic mass, known as the mass defect :.
See also: Mass Number. Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It is an intensive propertywhich is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume:. See also: What is Density. See also: Densest Materials of the Earth. In chemistry and atomic physicsthe electron affinity of an atom or molecule is defined as:.
Note that, ionization energies measure the tendency of a neutral atom to resist the loss of electrons. Electron affinities are more difficult to measure than ionization energies.
An atom of Neptunium in the gas phase, for example, gives off energy when it gains an electron to form an ion of Neptunium.
To use electron affinities properly, it is essential to keep track of sign.Allotropes Some elements exist in several different structural forms, called allotropes.
Each allotrope has different physical properties. For more information on the Visual Elements image see the Uses and properties section below. Group A vertical column in the periodic table. Members of a group typically have similar properties and electron configurations in their outer shell.
Period A horizontal row in the periodic table. The atomic number of each element increases by one, reading from left to right. Block Elements are organised into blocks by the orbital type in which the outer electrons are found. These blocks are named for the characteristic spectra they produce: sharp sprincipal pdiffuse dand fundamental f.
Atomic number The number of protons in an atom. Electron configuration The arrangements of electrons above the last closed shell noble gas.
Melting point The temperature at which the solid—liquid phase change occurs. Boiling point The temperature at which the liquid—gas phase change occurs. Sublimation The transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through a liquid phase.
Relative atomic mass The mass of an atom relative to that of carbon This is approximately the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Where more than one isotope exists, the value given is the abundance weighted average. Isotopes Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons.
CAS number The Chemical Abstracts Service registry number is a unique identifier of a particular chemical, designed to prevent confusion arising from different languages and naming systems. Murray Robertson is the artist behind the images which make up Visual Elements. This is where the artist explains his interpretation of the element and the science behind the picture.
Where the element is most commonly found in nature, and how it is sourced commercially. Atomic radius, non-bonded Half of the distance between two unbonded atoms of the same element when the electrostatic forces are balanced. These values were determined using several different methods. Covalent radius Half of the distance between two atoms within a single covalent bond.
Values are given for typical oxidation number and coordination. Electron affinity The energy released when an electron is added to the neutral atom and a negative ion is formed. Electronegativity Pauling scale The tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards itself, expressed on a relative scale. First ionisation energy The minimum energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom in its ground state. The oxidation state of an atom is a measure of the degree of oxidation of an atom.
It is defined as being the charge that an atom would have if all bonds were ionic.Aric AlmirolaRichard Petty Motorsports16. Ryan NewmanRichard Childress Racing17. Kyle LarsonChip Ganassi Racing19. Daniel SuarezJoe Gibbs Racing22.Zupani vukovarsko srijemske zupanije
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More than 2,000 launches were counted in 2016, compared to just 40 per year in the 70s. Healthy growth is continuing in the global market. North America and Europe have the largest markets, however the highest growth is envisaged in Asia.
Greenwashing will remain a major industry issue, with many brands opting for certification to legitimise their natural and organic marketing claims. Natural and organic will remain the main certification schemes for green cosmetics, however fragmentation is expected to continue.
Organic Monitor finds there are currently over 30 such standards for cosmetics and personal care products, with most in Europe. More investment will go into sustainable sourcing of natural ingredients. The number of ethical labels is predicted to rise this year, with more crossovers from the food industry. The range of green materials will expand this year.Hafnium - The Last Stable Metal On Earth!
Metrics will continue to gain prominence as large cosmetic firms look to measure and reduce their environmental footprints. Carbon footprints are the most widely used, however more companies are likely to consider energy, water, resource usage, waste and social parameters. Organic Monitor will continue to feature these issues in the Sustainable Cosmetics Summits organised around the world all along the year: www.
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